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Challenges and Critical Adaptations for Supporting Migrants and Refugees in Times of Crisis: Lessons from Non-State Actors in Singapore and Japan During Covid-19

Toyota Foundation Project Update

 

By Lauren S. Power

 

Introduction


This report will provide insights and outcomes from the Migration Subgroup[1] of the University of Tokyo International Law Training and Research Hub’s Toyota Foundation-funded project, “Research, Mutual Learning and Network Formation on Human Rights Best Practices by Non-State Actors in COVID Responses,”, led by Professor Ai Kihara-Hunt as the Principal Investigator. Lauren Power and Satoko Haru were Hub members and researchers for the Migration Subgroup.


The Migration Subgroup’s activities engaged with two project partner organizations that focused on providing various forms of support to migrants and refugees in Singapore and Japan, respectively. These project partners were identified through previous research on Covid-19 Responses by Non-Governmental Actors by the University of Tokyo International Law Training and Research Hub. With the goal of analyzing how identified non-state and non-traditional actors (i.e., partner organizations) were able to create and implement best practices in Covid-19 responses, thereby filling human rights protection and service gaps, the Migration Subgroup activities began with a Kickoff meeting was held on 13 April 2022 to determine which thematic areas were most important for their work and as a research focus for this project.


Through brainstorming and discussion, Migration Subgroup partners identified six primary themes for human rights best practices related to their work with migrants and refugees during Covid-19:


1.     Provision of essential goods and services

2.     Legal, language, and/or information support to migrants and refugees

3.     Wellbeing, empathy, and emotional support

4.     Government and stakeholder relations

5.     Digital innovations responsive to Covid-19

6.     Public outreach, engagement, and education about migrants and refugees


To explore each theme in greater detail and to facilitate knowledge-sharing and building a network of mutual help between partners, five consultations were held between May and October 2022. To deepen discussions and increase the network of mutual help for our two partner organizations, guest speakers were invited from other organizations to share their experiences and insights. These guest speakers were identified for their specializations on one or more of the six primary themes identified by project partners in Japan and Singapore. All six themes were discussed throughout the consultations, and several were discussed at multiple consultations.


Partners and guest speakers were provided a Concept Note ahead of each consultation to introduce the speakers and themes for focus. Consultations lasted 60-90 minutes, including 30-45 minutes of presentation followed by a discussion on themes and practices. They were recorded and later transcribed. Partners and guest speakers were sent a voluntary post-consultation survey in which they were asked to reflect and self-evaluate on the themes presented and discussed, their best practices and challenges, and lessons learned following each consultation. Following the conclusion of the five consultations, the data collected through surveys and transcripts was analyzed and made ready for reporting and presentation.


Research outcomes from Migration Subgroup were presented in March 2023 at the ‘International Conference on Human Rights: Youth in Asia’ held in Tokyo, Japan, and in June 2023 at the ‘International Conference on Education and Social Sciences’ held in Taipei, Taiwan. The Migration Subgroup also held an online Advocacy Workshop on 31 August 2023 hosted by HOST International, which was open to both project partners and former guest speakers for consultations. Since then, findings from the Migration Subgroup have been exchanged with other project subgroups, and all project researchers have pivoted to planning for site visits and, in some cases, publication.


In the following sections, this report will summarize the outcomes of the consultations and advocacy workshop, and share some conclusions.

 

Consultation Summaries

 

First Consultation


The first consultation was held on 9 May 2022 and featured a presentation and discussion by TRIBELESS®[2]. The relevant project themes for this consultation were a.) wellbeing, empathy, and emotional support to migrants and refugees during Covid-19, and b.) digital innovations responsive to Covid-19. TRIBELESS® is an impact-focused empathy training company founded in 2016 and based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It works with organizations and leaders around the world to turn Empathy into a tangible, sustainable practice using The Empathy Box© and #EmpathyCircles® proprietary methodology. Speaker, Gwen Yi, is the Founder of TRIBELESS®, and her work has received recognition from TED, One Young World, Obama Foundation, Royal Commonwealth Society, and The World Economic Forum.


The presentation and discussion centered around the importance of empathy, particularly in humanitarian contexts, and how it can be effectively practiced and sustained. A significant theme was the provision of emotional support and creating safe spaces for empathy and connection, even in online settings. This involves understanding and managing personal capacity for empathy to avoid burnout and recognizing the distinction between cognitive empathy (understanding someone's perspective) and affective empathy (sharing someone's feelings). As many organizations pivoted to digital solutions during Covid-19, finding ways to remain meaningfully people-centered and provide empathetic interactions with those who many already be facing marginalization, including migrants and refugees, proved challenging. TRIBELESS® shared some innovative approaches to overcome these difficulties.

 


The importance of storytelling and active listening in building empathy was one key point. Presenters emphasized the power of sharing personal stories to connect on a human level, regardless of language barriers or cultural differences. Additionally, the necessity of self-awareness and self-care in empathetic practices was highlighted, ensuring that those providing support also attend to their own well-being. Community engagement and volunteer support were critical themes, with discussions on sustaining volunteer efforts, managing burnout, and creating a supportive environment within volunteer organizations. Strategies for maintaining motivation and passion among volunteers were shared, emphasizing the need for regular check-ins and acknowledgment of their contributions.


Challenges of language proficiency and communication barriers were addressed, with solutions such as utilizing common interests and visual aids to help bridge gaps and foster connection. The use of breakout rooms in online settings was suggested as an effective way to facilitate smaller, more intimate conversations that can lead to deeper connections and empathy among participants. Digital interaction does not have to be less human when used strategically and with empathy in mind. Overall, these the presentation and discussion of the first consultation reflect a comprehensive approach to practicing and sustaining empathy, focusing on the importance of self-awareness, storytelling, community support, and innovative methods to overcome barriers in communication and connection.

 

Second Consultation


The second consultation was held on 30 May 2022 with presentations from Sophia Refugee Support Group (SRSG) on the project themes a.) provision of essential goods and services during Covid-19, and b.) public outreach, engagement, and education about migrants & refugees during Covid-19.


Sophia Refugee Support Group (SRSG)[3] is a student-led, volunteer-run, refugee and asylum seeker support organization founded in 2017 and based at Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan. SRSG aims to be the bridge connecting refugees and the Japanese society by enhancing the knowledge about refugees among the Japanese public and helping refugees to find better opportunities to realize their potential. The speakers, Christina Fukuoka, Megumi Mallari, and Haruna Tsukiyama, were Sophia University students, volunteers, and leaders for SRSG. David H. Slater, Ph.D. is Professor of Cultural Anthropology at Sophia University and the faculty advisor for SRSG. Together, these student leaders and Professor Slater, coordinate the various activities of SRSG.


The presentation and discussion covered several key themes related to refugee support and the challenges faced by refugees in Japan. One primary theme was the provision of essential goods and services, including delivering food and hygiene products to refugees, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. SRSG collaborates with organizations like Second Harvest Japan to address these needs, tailoring support to refugees' specific dietary and hygiene requirements.

 


Another significant topic discussed was well-being and emotional support. SRSG's initiatives such as ‘SRSG Refugee Café’ aim to provide emotional support and foster connections between refugees and the local community. These programs also encourage cultural exchange and help refugees feel a sense of belonging. Community engagement and volunteer efforts were emphasized, showcasing the role of volunteers and the broader community in supporting refugees. Efforts to raise awareness, organize events, and provide direct support through various initiatives were discussed, highlighting the importance of effective volunteer management. Cultural sensitivity and mutual understanding were key themes, involving opportunities for cultural exchange and ensuring that support programs are culturally appropriate and respectful. This includes addressing negative stereotypes and misconceptions about refugees in Japan.

 

Legal advocacy and policy initiatives were discussed, focusing on the need for legal support and advocacy for refugees. This includes addressing issues such as detention, asylum application processes, and the rights of refugees. The complex and often opaque criteria for obtaining refugee status in Japan was highlighted as a significant challenge. Another related challenge is the language barrier, which limits refugees’ abilities to understand and complete legal procedures and/or seek help.

 

Finally, SRSG discussed the challenges of adaptability, focusing on the difficulties it has faced as a student-led organization in sustaining activities and funding, especially during Covid-19. The group has faced challenges in maintaining passion and drive among its members, navigating financial constraints, and ensuring the continuity of their support activities, as well. Fostering a safe space for discussion of these organizational challenges proved valuable, as it opened possibilities for authentic knowledge exchange and peer-learning. Overall, the discussions from the fourth consultation reflect a comprehensive approach to supporting refugees, focusing on their immediate needs, mental health, legal rights, and overall well-being, while emphasizing collaboration, community engagement, and cultural sensitivity.

 

Third Consultation


The third consultation was held on 1 August 2022 and featured a presentation from COVID-19 Migrant Support Coalition (CMSC)[4] with speaker Nicholas ‘Nick’ Chan. This consultation focused on three project themes: a.) provision of essential goods and services during Covid-19; b.) well-being, empathy, and emotional support during Covid-19; and c.) government and stakeholder relations during Covid-19.

 

Established on 6 April 2020, the COVID-19 Migrant Support Coalition (CMSC) is a fully volunteer-run, Singapore-based initiative that started as a collaborative effort between a few smaller migrant workers supporting groups to meet the needs of our migrant friends affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. CMSC aims to meet the immediate supply, mental wellness and learning engagement needs of our migrant friends.


The presentation and discussion centered around several key themes, including the provision of essential goods and services, well-being and emotional support, government and stakeholder relations during COVID-19, legal advocacy and policy initiatives, community engagement, and cultural sensitivity. A significant focus was on providing hot meals, essential items, and other basic needs to migrant workers confined to dormitories during the COVID-19 lockdowns. The challenges these workers faced, such as lack of access to nutritious food and basic supplies, were prominently highlighted during the presentation.

 

 

The well-being and emotional support of migrant workers were emphasized through CMSC initiatives like the ‘We Pals’ and ‘We Talk’ programs. These programs aimed to offer emotional support and foster connections between migrant workers and the local community, facilitating cultural exchange and providing a sense of community and belonging. Collaboration between various stakeholders, including the government, NGOs, and community groups, was crucial in coordinating efforts and providing support. The government played a key role in these collaborations, while community groups like CMSC worked on the ground to address the immediate needs of migrant workers.

 

Legal advocacy and policy initiatives were also discussed, focusing on issues such as unpaid wages, poor living conditions, and the rights of workers to medical leave and fair treatment. This involved working with legal professionals and other organizations to ensure the protection of migrant workers' rights. Community engagement and volunteer efforts were highlighted, showcasing the role of volunteers and the broader community in supporting migrant workers. Efforts to raise awareness, organize events, and provide direct support through various initiatives were discussed, emphasizing the importance of effective volunteer management.

 

Cultural sensitivity and fostering mutual understanding between migrant workers and the local population were key themes, involving opportunities for cultural exchange and ensuring that support programs were culturally appropriate and respectful. The challenges faced by organizations and volunteers in adapting to the rapidly changing situation during the pandemic were also addressed, including logistical issues, ensuring safety, and finding innovative solutions to emerging problems. These themes collectively reflected a comprehensive approach to supporting migrant workers, focusing on their immediate needs, mental health, legal rights, and overall well-being, while emphasizing collaboration and community engagement.

 

Fourth Consultation


The fourth consultation was held on 6 October 2022 and focused on the project themes a.) government and stakeholder relations during Covid-19, and b.) public outreach, engagement, and education about migrants and refugees during Covid-19. It featured presentations from speakers representing four different migrant- and refugee-focused non-state actors, each highlighting different approaches to achieving their goals. Some were grassroots organizations that provided goods and services to small communities, while others represented Asia-regional and/or global advocacy agendas.


Kasumi Refugee Support Youth (KaReSuYo)[5] is a student-led volunteer circle with the aim of helping refugees in Japan. KaReSuYo publishes translations of news articles and publishes original articles to raise awareness about the plight of refugees, immigrants, and asylum seekers in Japan. The group consists of university students from Japan and elsewhere. They also have a large network of connections with other volunteer organizations who are helping refugees in various ways.


Migration Children and Youth Platform (MYCP)[6] is the migration-focused arm of the Major Group for Children and Youth (MGCY), the official global youth engagement mechanism for the United Nations. MYCP was launch in 2021 as an outcome of MGCY’s successful efforts to bring the voices of youth into the Regional and Global Reviews of the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly, and Regular Migration (GCM) which took place from 2020-22. It engages youth from around the world in advocacy, research, and community-building activities, often supported directly by United Nations agencies. Ratu Bintang Assyifa Arweys, a recent graduate from Tokyo International University and volunteer for migrants, presented on KeReSuYo and MYCP.


The Indonesian Student Association in Japan (PPIJ)[7] is an organization consisting of Indonesian students who are studying in Japan. Since its establishment in 1953, PPIJ's missions include initiating the introduction of Indonesian culture, maximizing the ability and potential of Indonesian students in Japan, accommodating the needs and thoughts of Indonesian students in Japan, and assisting Indonesian students studying in Japan. Anastasya Wulandari Hasyim, a PhD Student at Kobe University and Chairperson of PPI Jepang, presented on PPIJ.


Finally, RUMI JAPAN (House of Indonesian Community in Japan), is a non-profit organization founded by researchers of Indonesian Migrant Workers in Japan. The founders of this organization are Natsuko Saeki Sensei (Nagoya Gakuin University), Yusy Widaraesty (Ritsumeikan University), Anastasya Wulandari Hasyim (Kobe University), Muhammad Reza Rustam (Hiroshima University), Waode Hanifah Istiqomah (Hitotsubashi University), and Fitria Noriza (Chiba University). The main objective of this organization is to encourage the creation of collective awareness, and active participation of Indonesian Migrant workers in fighting for their rights and interests during their migration journey in Japan, providing information related to labor and non-labor laws, including information on how to access legal aid, and providing empowerment so they can build a sense of solidarity and mutual concern. Yusy Widarahesty a Ph.D. student at the Institute of International Relations and Area Studies of Ritsumeikan University, a Research Assistant at Asia Japan Institute/AJI Ritsumeikan University, a lecturer at the Al Azhar University of Indonesia and Co-founder of RUMI Jepang was the presenter for RUMI Jepang.



The fourth consultation presentations and discussion focused on several key themes related to migration, government and stakeholder relations, and public outreach during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a specific emphasis on the Indonesian community in Japan. A primary theme was the interaction between government and stakeholders in supporting migrants and refugees during the pandemic. Maintaining these relationships was deemed crucial for effective support. Public outreach, engagement, and education were also significant topics, highlighting efforts to educate the public about the challenges faced by migrants and refugees and the initiatives undertaken by youth and university groups to raise awareness and support.

 

Support for migrants and refugees, especially those in low-skilled jobs, was a critical area of discussion. The four presenting organizations, which include university circles, regional NGOs, and international student associations, were able to adapt to provide necessary support mechanisms. These included detention center visits and social media campaigns to raise awareness. The challenges of advocating for migrants and refugees in a sensitive political environment were acknowledged, particularly for international students who face limited political power and cultural differences in activism. PPIJ, for example, played a significant role in supporting their community during the pandemic. Their activities ranged from disseminating crucial information and providing food aid and scholarships to offering mental health support. Uniting students from diverse backgrounds was essential to form a resilient community. Empowerment and legal advocacy were also discussed, emphasizing the need for structured support systems to protect migrant workers' rights. Efforts to educate and empower migrant workers to advocate for themselves were highlighted as vital to fostering a sense of solidarity and mutual support within the community. These themes collectively underscored a comprehensive approach to addressing migrants' and refugees' needs through education, direct support, advocacy, and community solidarity.

 

 

While MYCP focuses on migrant youth advocacy efforts across the Asia-Pacific region, the activities of KaReSuYo, RUMI JAPAN, and PPIJ deal with providing for groups of migrants from Indonesia in different regions of Japan. Through hearing about the different ways these groups pivoted to address government and stakeholder relations, and public outreach, engagement, and education about migrants and refugees during Covid-19, project partner organizations in Japan and Singapore could find inspiration for their own work.

 

Fifth Consultation


The fifth consultation was held on 21 October 2022 and featured a presentation by Voice Up Japan, International Christian University (ICU) Chapter. The relevant project themes for this consultation were a.) wellbeing, empathy, and emotional support during Covid-19, and b.) digital innovations responsive to Covid-19.

 

Voice Up Japan is a student-led organization with a mission to create an environment in Japan where more people can speak and work toward gender equality. To achieve this goal, Voice Up Japan conducts activities to reform criminal laws regarding sexual crimes; helps to develop human resources able to resolve sexual crimes, gender discrimination, sexual harassment, etc. among young people; provides education for the understanding of the realities of sexual harassment and sexual crimes; and supports activities for victims of sexual crimes. Voice Up Japan actively engages with university student communities through holding lectures and other events, and by launching campaigns to raise awareness.

 

The consultation presentation and discussion centered on the activities and challenges of student organizations in Japan focused on social issues, particularly gender and refugee issues. One key theme was the provision of health and well-being support, emphasizing initiatives like HPV vaccination campaigns and education on sexual consent. These efforts involve collaboration with university departments and external organizations to promote awareness and drive change. The use of technology and online platforms during COVID-19 was also significant, as it helped maintain engagement and support through online meetings, icebreaker activities, and one-on-one chats, fostering a sense of community despite physical separation.

 


Community engagement and volunteer efforts were crucial, highlighting the role of volunteers in organizing events, providing emotional support, and translating documents for refugees. Communication and sustainability within organizations were discussed, with groups facing challenges in maintaining effective communication and ensuring the continuity of their projects as membership grew. Strategies like setting clear project goals, implementing a buddy system, and organizing social gatherings were employed to enhance member engagement and organizational sustainability.

 

The intersection of social issues was another important theme, as participants discussed how gender and refugee issues, though seemingly distinct, share common challenges in raising awareness and engaging the broader public. The use of social media to disseminate information and collaborate with influencers was highlighted as an effective way to broaden their reach and impact. Support and constraints from universities varied, with some student groups experiencing strong support, particularly from institutions known for their focus on gender studies, while others faced challenges in promoting their activities due to administrative constraints. This variability influenced how effectively these groups could operate and advocate for their causes.

 

 

Overall, the themes reflect a comprehensive approach to addressing social issues through health initiatives, technology use, community engagement, effective communication, intersectional advocacy, and navigating institutional support and constraints.

 


Advocacy Workshop

 

After completing the five consultations and at the request of our partners, the Migration Subgroup held an Advocacy Workshop on 31 August 2023. The relevant project themes for this workshop were a.) government and stakeholder relations, and b.) public outreach, engagement, and education about migrants and refugees. David Jonathan Keegan of HOST International[8] led the workshop, and the opportunity to join was made open to Migration Subgroup partners and past presenters, as well as partners from other subgroups under the umbrella of the project on ‘Research, Mutual Learning and Network Formation on Human Rights Best Practices by Non-State Actors in COVID Responses’.

 

 

During the workshop, participants learned about the efforts and strategies of HOST International, a non-profit organization focused on improving the lives of displaced people and their host communities through innovative approaches to refugee and migrant protection. Established in 2016, HOST International works across the Asia Pacific region, providing support and promoting sustainable social and economic integration. The organization emphasizes community inclusion, individual well-being, and systemic change, leveraging research and advocacy to influence global policies and practices. The CEO and founder, David Jonathan Keegan, brings over 20 years of experience in various humanitarian fields and is committed to creating inclusive environments where displaced individuals and host communities collaborate for mutual benefit.

 

The Advocacy Workshop and tips provided by HOST International highlight the importance of strategic communication and stakeholder engagement in effective advocacy. Key considerations include clearly defining the issue, presenting evidence, and illustrating the problem's impact through real stories. Advocates are encouraged to focus on solutions rather than merely highlighting problems, identify the necessary changes, and determine the responsible stakeholders. The importance of building relationships with influential individuals and maintaining follow-up opportunities is emphasized to ensure continued engagement and progress. These guidelines aim to amplify advocates' voices, ensuring their messages are heard and taken seriously.

 

 

The workshop introduced five key tips for better advocacy:

 

1.     Clearly Define the Issue Describe the problem concisely, provide evidence, and explain its impact on individuals or the community. Tailor your message to the audience to ensure relevance and clarity.

 

2.     Focus on SolutionsAvoid merely complaining about problems. Propose actionable solutions and specify what needs to change, including policies, practices, or laws. Identify who is responsible for implementing these changes.

 

3.     Engage the Right StakeholdersIdentify and connect with individuals or groups who have the power to effect change. Build relationships with allies who can enhance your credibility and influence others.

 

4.     Maintain Consistent CommunicationUse social media and other platforms to regularly share information, updates, and success stories. Consistent communication helps maintain engagement and broaden your reach.

 

5.     Follow UpEnsure opportunities for further engagement by scheduling follow-up meetings or conversations. Provide updates and continue to involve additional stakeholders to keep the momentum and drive ongoing support for your cause.

 

Developing an advocacy strategy that is effective, sustainable, and responsive to the changes needs and limitations of migrant and refugee populations is a challenge faced by many, including our Migration Subgroup partners. Being able to explore new ways of addressing and overcoming this challenge through this workshop provided helpful options and tools that can be implemented and shared in the future.

 

 

Conclusions

 

At all times, the State remains the duty-bearer of protection of human rights. However, the unprecedented shock and scale of the Covid-19 crisis tested the limits of governments, economies, and health and welfare regimes, including their capacity to deliver on their commitments to human rights. This made the role of the non-state actors that were already serving marginalized and vulnerable groups even more important, but not all organizations were able to adapt and respond during the disruption caused by Covid-19. Best response cases, including those identified for this project, recognized the gaps, understood the root causes for the exacerbated marginalization, and felt the need to protect the human rights of particularly marginalized segments of society affected by the pandemic. Although they are non-state and non-traditional actors, they believed that they could fill the gaps in human rights protections through their initiatives and exerted remarkable efforts to adapt and coordinate responses.


Initial compatibility concerns between a Singapore-based migrant-focused partner and a Japan-based refugee-focused partner were alleviated over the course of consultations. Partners could still learn from and support each other, and they shared more similarities than originally expected. Notably, while both partners are effective in filling multiple gaps in human rights protections and services for vulnerable migrants and refugees, human rights mainstreaming was not an explicit goal in framing their practice. Introducing this framework as an opportunity in consultations has opened a larger range of options for future network-building and collaborations. Expanding the scope of research by consulting with other non-State actors that work in the migrant and refugee support space in East and Southeast Asia proved helpful to gain a better understanding of opportunities and constraints in providing support to migrants and refugees. Through consultations and knowledge-sharing, it became clear that certain capacities for government advocacy, coalition-building, and leveraging digital tools, especially for wellbeing and empathy would benefit partners in practice. Lessons learned through the Migration Subgroup can benefit not only this project’s participants but can also inform best practices in times of future crisis.

 



[1] Special thanks to Satoko Haru and the partners and participants of the Migration Subgroup, including COVID-19 Migrant Support Coalition (CMSC), Sophia Refugee Support Group (SRSG), TRIBELESS®, Kasumi Refugee Support Youth (KaReSuYo), The Indonesian Student Association in Japan (PPIJ), Migration Children and Youth Platform (MYCP), RUMI JAPAN (House of Indonesian Community in Japan), Voice Up Japan ICU, and Host International for their collaboration and contributions.

[2] Learn more at www.tribeless.co and connect on LinkedIn, Facebook, and Instagram.

[3] Learn more about SRSG on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram.

[4] Learn more on CMSC’s website, Facebook, and Instagram.


[5] Learn more on KaReSuYo’s Instagram and Facebook.

[6] Learn more on MYCP’s website and Instagram.

[7] Learn more on PPIJ’s website, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube.

[8] To learn more about HOST International, please visit the organization’s homepage and Facebook page.




References

 

“Mutual Learning, Network Formation on HR Best Practices by Non-State Actors in COVID responses”, The UTokyo International Law Hub (blog), May 10, 2022. https://www.utokyointlaw.com/post/mutual-learning-network-formation-human-rights-best-practices-by-non-state-actors-covid-resp

 

“Report on COVID-19 Responses by Non-Governmental Actors”, The UTokyo International Law Hub (blog), November 9, 2021 (Updated September 1, 2022). https://www.utokyointlaw.com/post/report-on-covid-19-responses-by-non-governmental-actors 

 

The Toyota Foundation. 2021. “アジアにおけるコロナ対策の民間による人権ベストプラクティスについての研究・相互学習とネットワーク形成 [Research, Mutual Learning and Network Formation on Human Rights Best Practices by Non-State Actors in COVID responses]. 2021 国際助成プログラム(2年) [2021 International Grant Program (2 years)]. https://toyotafound.secure.force.com/psearch/JoseiDetail?name=D21-N2-0047

 

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United Nations, General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 2200A (XXI) (16 December 1966). https://www.ohchr.org/en/instruments-mechanisms/instruments/international-covenant-civil-and-political-rights.

 

United Nations, General Assembly, Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, A/53/144/article 2 (09 December 1998). https://www.ohchr.org/en/instruments-mechanisms/instruments/declaration-right-and-responsibility-individuals-groups-and.

 

United Nations, General Assembly, Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, A/53/144/article 3 (09 December 1998). https://www.ohchr.org/en/instruments-mechanisms/instruments/declaration-right-and-responsibility-individuals-groups-and.

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